There are many different ways of taking cannabidiol. There are capsules, tinctures, etc. With e-cigarettes becoming very popular lately amongst cigarette smokers, the use of vaporizers has also branched out into our world of natural health. They are now counted as one of the convenient and beneficial ways of taking CBD.
That being said, there are few factors you should look out for before buying buying CBD product in any form.
There seems to be a lot of infographics online that give dosage information, but what you need to remember is that everyone is different and metabolisms vary. Like with all news things, be reasonable and start small, working up the dosage based on how you feel until you find the desired effect.
Like all new things relating to the vape world its open to abuse and unfortunately there are a lot of of CBD producers who are using synthetic CBD so be very careful when buying cleverly marketed CBD vape liquids as the quality and product could actually be harmful to you as unknown compounds etc are introduced to your body. So only buy from certified vendors or make your own to be sure of the quality.
Cheap cannabidiol, (CBD) oils are cheap for a reason. If you searched for ‘CBD oil’ in your search engine right now it would bring up hundreds of different CBD products – and all of them claiming to be the best ever and extracted from the strongest hemp! The interesting thing about them is that most of these producers and distributors offer no tangible evidence to support the claim that their products are the best. Surely, lower prices are more attractive, but think twice before picking the cheap CBD oil over the higher quality one. If you want to make sure you’re getting a safe and effective product, look for quality, not for a low price.
Most importantly, do your research before buying any CBD products. Look out for lab test results that are visible for anyone who wants to see them. Beware of products that claim to cure everything – although cannabidiol has shown promising results in numerous studies, that doesn’t mean to say that it will cure your condition over night!
If you’re unfamiliar with cannabinoids or terpenoids, it’s time to learn. Each strain can be defined by a specific chemical makeup, i.e.., its combination of cannabinoids and terpenoids. The exact relationship between cannabinoids and terpenoids is uncertain, but the ineffectiveness of single cannabinoid extractions (e.g.., Marinol THC capsules) prove the significance of the synergistic effects of both compounds – often referred to as “the entourage effect.” Whether terpenes increase bioaccessibility of cannabinoids or vice versa, terpenes have been connected to the flavor and aroma of the plant whereas cannabinoids are well-known to influence effects.
So what exactly are terpenes?
Terpenes are volatile aromatic molecules that evaporate easily and readily announce themselves to the nose. Various researchers have emphasized the pharmacological importance of terpenes, or terpenoids, which form the basis of aromatherapy, a popular holistic healing modality. Marijuana’s compelling fragrance and particular psychoactive flavor are determined by the predominate terpenes in a strain.
Around 200 terpenes have been found in cannabis, but only a few of these odiferous oily substances appear in amounts substantial enough to be noteworthy, or nose worthy, as it were. Among them are monoterpenes, diterpenes, and sesquiterpenes, which are characterized by the number of repeating units of a 5-carbon molecule called isoprene, the structural hallmark of all terpenoid compounds. The terpenes in marijuana have given the plant an enduring, evolutionary advantage. Pungent terpenoid oils repel insects and animal grazers; others prevent fungus.
Terpenes, it turns out, are healthy for people as well as plants. A September 2011 report by Dr. Ethan Russo in the British Journal of Pharmacology discussed the wide-ranging therapeutic attributes of terpenoids, which are typically lacking in “CBD-only” products.
What are marijuana terpenes?
More than 100 different terpenes have been detected in marijuana, and there are many more if we consider the different variations of each one. For example, the typical smell of citrus fruits comes from terpenes called limonenes, but these can vary in concentration. The limonenes of a lemon are identical to the limonenes of an orange, but each variety is defined by a different smell, resulting from tiny differences in the proportions or the form of the limonenes that it contains.
Here we list the main terpenes found in Cannabis Sativa and its effects on our health. You will see that percentages can vary widely from one variety to another. Here are the most common cannabis cannabinoids and their benefits:
THC is the most well-known and most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana, THC is the cannabinoid responsible for the main psychoactive effects most people associate with marijuana. THC has analgesic, anti-emetic (reduces vomiting and nausea), anti-proliferative (inhibits cancer cell growth), antioxidant, antispasmodic, anxiolitic (decreases anxiety), appetite stimulant, euphoriant, and neuroprotective (slows damage to the nervous system and brain) effects.
CBD is the main non-psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis. CBD has a wide range of therapeutic uses. Because of its many therapeutic uses and because it is non-psychoactive, it is often recommended for treatment of children, the elderly, and anyone who wants the medicinal benefits of cannabis without the “high.” CBD has analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic (reduces blood sugar), antidepressant, anti-emetic, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-insomnia, anti-ischemic (reduces the risk of artery blockage), antipsoriatic (treats psoriasis), anti-proliferative, antipsychotic, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anxiolitc, bone stimulant, immunosuppressive, intestinal anti-prokinetc (reduces small intestine contractions), neuroprotective, and vasorelaxant (reduces vascular tension) effects.
CBN is a mildly psychoactive cannabinoid that comes from the degradation of THC after an extended period of time due to exposure to oxygen and heat. There is usually very little to no CBN in a fresh plant. CBN has analgesic, anti-epileptic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-insomnia, anti-emetic, anti-proliferative, appetite stimulant, and bone stimulant effects.
CBG is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that is believed to block the psychoactive effects of THC. CBG has analgesic, antibacterial, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-insomnia, anti-proliferative, bone stimulant, and neurogenic (promotes growth of new brain cells) effects.
CBC is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. CBC has a wide range of medical uses. CBC has analgesic, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, bone stimulant, anxiolitic, and neurogenic (promotes the growth of new brain cells) effects.
THCA is the most abundant cannabinoid in cannabis. THCA is the acidic precursor to THC and converts to Δ9-THC when heated. THCA is non-psychoactive and has many therapeutic uses. THCA is an analgesic, a neuroprotectant has anti-inflammatory, anti-insomnia, antispasmodic, anti-proliferative, and anti-emetic effects, and has been shown to modulate the immune system.
CBDA is found in elevated levels in specific cannabis strains. Like THCA, CBDA converts to CBD when heated. CBDA is non-psychoactive and has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and has also been shown to be anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, and anti-proliferative.
The benefits of the primary terpenes found in cannabis:
Pinene is the most common naturally occuring terpenoid in nature and is responsible for the pine taste in many popular strains. Pinene is a bronchodilator and has analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-prolifertive, and anti-oxidant effects.
Linalool has a floral scent with spicy overtones and has analgesic, antidepressant, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-psychotic, anxiolytic, and sedative effects.
Myrcene is the smallest terpene but the most prevalent terpene found in most varieties of cannabis. Myrcene dictates whether a strain will have an indica or sativa effect. Strains high in myrcene will result in a “couch lock” effect while strains with low levels of Myrcene will produce a more energetic high. Myrcene has earthy, fruity notes and analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-insomnia, anti-proliferative/ant-mutagenic, antipsychotic, and antispasmodic effects.
Limonene is a dominant terpene in strains that have a pronounced sativa effect. Limonene has a strong citrus odor and flavor and aids in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and mucous membranes. It has antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anxiolytic, gasto-pesphageal reflux (reduces acid reflux), immunostimulant effects.
Caryophyllene is a spicy terpene. It is the only terpene known to interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (CB2). Caryophyllene has analgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, anxiolitic, analgesic, and neuroprotective effects.
Humulene contributes to the “hoppy” aroma of cannabis. Humulene has analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anorectic (appetite suppressant) effects.
Bisabolol has a light, sweet floral aroma and is known to have antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory, and anti-irritant effects. Bisabolol has also shown to be a pro-apoptotic agent for acute leukemia cells.
Ocimene is used in perfumes for its pleasant odor. In nature this terpene acts as part of the plants defenses and possesses antifungal properties.
Terpinolene has smoky or woody notes. Terpinolene is a sedative and also has antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-insomnia, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant effects.
Geraniol has rosy, floral notes. It is an effective mosquito repellent and shows a potential protective effect against neuropathy.
Terpineol smells of lilac, crabapple blossoms and lime blossoms. During tests on mice, their mobility was reduced to 45%. This explains the sedative effect of some marijuana strains. Terpineol is often found in strains that have a high level of pinenes, the aromas of which can hide the smell of terpineol.
Valencene contributes to the citrus odor of cannabis. The effects of Valencene are being researched.
Selina-3, 7 (11)-diene is a more recently discovered terpene whose properties are still being explored. It has been used in various antimicrobial studies in essential oil testing and has shown promise with inhibiting microbial growth.
By now the majority of us know that smoking tobacco cigarettes is generally bad for us and how it affects our bodies and health both in the short and long term.
There was a scientific study published in 2008 which cited tobacco as the single greatest cause of preventable death worldwide.
In fact it quotes:
“each cigarette smoked is estimated to shorten life expectancy by 11 minutes”.
Now let’s say you smoke a packet of 20 tobacco cigarettes a day, you potentially have taken almost 4 hours off of your life – imagine what you could do in 4 hours!
Most people who smoke cigarettes agree that how to quit smoking cigarettes is a big issue for them especially with the amount of products that are aimed at helping you to stop smoking tobacco that causes the biggest dilemma by deciding which to choose and what is the most effective? Nicotine gum? Nicotine patches?
The choices are endless and do they really work in helping you give up smoking?
There is an issue, nicotine addiction as obviously one of the main components in a tobacco cigarette is nicotine and all the stop smoking aids in the main contain nicotine!
Numerous studies have suggested a link between nicotine addiction and the endocannabinoid system (a group of receptors in all our brains that is involved in a variety of physiological processes such as appetite, pain sensation, mood and memory).
The latest research suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) can help if you are trying to stop smoking! CBDeaze, our cannabidiol eliquid contains 100mg pure organic CBD and absolutely no nicotine!
Now this is the interesting part.
In September 2014, a study completed by the University College London researchers was published in Addictive Behaviors. University researchers attempted to investigate whether low doses of CBD could help smokers who wanted to quit smoking to overcome their nicotine addiction.
Celia J.A. Morgan led the research team, and 24 participants ages 18-35 were selected. Half of the participants were male, while the other half were female, and the study utilized a double-blind and placebo-controlled model. In order to participate in the study, participants were required to smoke more than 10 cigarettes each day, and they also needed to have a goal of beating their nicotine habit.
Next, participants recorded the number of cigarettes that they smoked throughout the week before treatment. They were then split into two groups and given an inhaler to use each time they felt a craving to smoke. One group was given a placebo, while the second group received CBD.
Participants then recorded their inhaler use over the next week, and they also kept track of the number of cigarettes they smoked. Researchers also sent out texts once per day asking participants to rate their level of craving for cigarettes.
Researchers found that those in the placebo group showed no difference in the amount that they smoked. However, those in the CBD group smoked, on average, 40% less after just a 1-week period!
“We found that CBD seems to reduce the salience of cues. It also can reduce anxiety and may affect a memory process called ‘reconsolidation,’ which is where when a memory of the reward of smoking is re-activated by seeing someone smoking, it is rendered vulnerable to destruction”, says Dr. Celia Morgan, co-author of the study. “CBD might mean these positive smoking memories are gradually erased,”
Cannabidiol helps broken bones heal faster, a new study has found.
The Times of Israel reports that researchers at Tel Aviv University found that rats with broken bones healed much quicker when given the non-psychotic cannabis component, CBD.
The administration of the non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) leads to improvement in bone fracture healing, according to preclinical data published online ahead of print in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.
Investigators at the Hebrew University Bone Laboratory in Israel assessed the ability of CBD administration to promote healing in rats with mid-femoral fractures. Researchers reported, “CBD markedly enhanced the biomechanical properties of the healing femora after 8 weeks.”
Authors also evaluated the administration of THC and CBD together, but reported that this combined preparation was “not advantageous” over CBD alone — indicating that the plant’s potential bone-stimulating properties are primarily specific to cannabidiol.
Their conclusion was that “CBD alone is sufficiently effective in enhancing fracture healing. Multiple experimental and clinical trials have portrayed CBD as a safe agent suggesting further studies in humans to assess its usefulness for improving fracture healing.”
“While there is still a lot of work to be done to develop appropriate therapies, it is clear that it is possible to detach a clinical therapy objective from the psychoactivity of cannabis. CBD, the principal agent in our study, is primarily anti-inflammatory and has no psychoactivity,” said Dr. Yankel Gabet of Tel Aviv’s Bone Research Laboratory, as cited by the Tel Aviv university website.
To illustrate these findings, scientists tested two different groups of rats – one was treated with both CBD and THC while the other one only with CBD.
“We found CBD alone to be sufficiently effective in enhancing fracture healing,” Gabet explained.
“Other studies have also shown CBD to be a safe agent, which leads us to believe we should continue this line of study in clinical trials to assess its usefulness in improving human fracture healing,” he added.
The researchers also found that human cannabinoid receptors stimulate bone growth. That means further studies of marijuana usage to treat osteoporosis and other skeletal diseases are to come.
“We only respond to cannabis because we are built with intrinsic compounds and receptors that can also be activated by compounds in the cannabis plant,” Gabet said.
“The clinical potential of cannabinoid-related compounds is simply undeniable at this point,” he added.
Researchers have previously acknowledged that endogenous cannabinoids stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone loss, potentially paving the way for the future use of cannabinoid drugs for combating osteoporosis.
Scientists recently converged in Philadelphia for the American Epilepsy Society’s 69th Annual Meeting, touting new studies and insights in the field of epilepsy. Researchers discussed new findings, including personalized medicine, and the promise of cannabidiol (CBD) in human and animal studies.
A year-long study conducted by epilepsy specialists at the New York University Langone Medical Center have suggested that cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis effectively reduces seizure frequency and is safe for most children and young adults who have epilepsy. Research led by Dr. Orinn Devinsky from the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center at Langone followed patients with the condition at 11 epilepsy centres across the US.
In total, 261 study participants between the ages of 1-30 years were given the oral CBD treatment Epidiolex over the course of 12 weeks. Both, researchers and families knew they were receiving CBD treatment.
Participants were given an oral CBD regimen from 2-5 mg/kg per day and increased dosage until either intolerance occurred or to a maximum dose of either 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg per day. Additionally, parents recorded seizures in diaries, which the study team reviewed at each visit. The team also conducted lab screenings at baseline and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of CBD treatment.
The number of convulsive seizures, called grand mal or tonic-clonic seizures, went down by about half on average. Devinsky says that some children continued to experience benefits on cannabidiol after the trial ended. “In the subsequent periods, which are very encouraging, 9 percent of all patients and 13 percent of those with Dravet Syndrome epilepsy were seizure-free. Many have never been seizure-free before,” he says.
Evidence suggesting that CBD is effective against treatment-resistant epilepsy may be growing but scientists still know very little about how it works—other than the likelihood that it is “completely different than any other seizure drug we know,” as Devinsky puts it. That’s a good thing, he notes: “One fear is that because of the way that the drugs are tested and screened, we’ve ended up with a lot of ‘me-too’ drugs that are all very similar.”.
Despite of preliminary positive results of the study published last December, researchers (including those who were involved in the study) agree that a full clinical placebo-controlled trial needs to be done. However, that takes time and puts parents in a difficult position, and as Devinsky says “Parents are desperate and they feel the medical community has failed them, which is true in many cases.”. In the meantime most clinicians and researchers advise “cautious optimism” when considering CBD as an epilepsy treatment.
At first, the scientists thought it only responds to endogenous cannabinoids produced by the human body. However, the latest research has found that the system will also recognize and respond to cannabinoids from external sources, including CBD, which is found in hemp.
There are two main types of receptors in the endocannabinoid system. These are CB1 and CB2 receptors. Unlike THC – the main psychoactive compound of cannabis – CBD is unable to bind to either receptor perfectly. This causes stimulation in the cells where the receptors are activated, without being fully latched onto. As CBD is transported through the bloodstream, and endocannabinoid receptors can be found throughout the entire body – including the brain – interactions can take place throughout the entire body, causing widespread and varied effects. It is largely why CBD oil has become such a popular dietary supplement.
Although the endocannabinoid system is the main point of CBD interaction, it is not the only one. So we thought it worth quickly mentioning the other ways CBD interacts with the body. This additional interaction is caused by CBD stimulating other receptors. For example, CBD is thought to activate serotonin receptors. It also stimulates G-protein receptors that affect temperature control and pain perception.
What we know for sure is that CBD is a complex cannabinoid, and the way it interacts with the body is nothing but amazing. The fact we have an internal system that appears to be specifically set up to work with CBD is astonishing. The research already conducted into CBD has found nothing but positive results – so who know what the future of CBD based research could bring.
To understand how CBD affects our bodies, we need to get right to the bottom of cannabinoid science.
To tell you the truth, cannabis is all about cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are responsible for marijuana’s effects on the body — and the reason you get high. They’re also the reason why medical marijuana works to alleviate so many symptom-related ailments.
Because cannabis is mainly used for recreational or medicinal purposes, a little information on cannabinoids can help you make healthier choices for your brain and body.
“Cannabinoids are a class of diverse chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors in cells that repress neurotransmitter release in the brain. Ligands for these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by humans and animals), the phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially). The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major constituent of the plant. There are at least 113 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects.”
Esentially, cannabinoids are simply chemical compounds that cause reactions when they enter the body via the lungs as smoke and vapour or through the stomach as edibles. They can even permeate the skin, as is the case with cannabis topicals. The path via smoking and vaporizing is slightly different than that of cannabis when eaten. The effects of ingested, or eaten, cannabis are typically stronger and last longer because it is processed by the stomach and liver before it enters the blood stream.
What is the difference between cannabinoids?
The major differences between the cannabinoids are determined by the extent to which they are psychologically active. Three classes of cannabinoids, the CBG, CBC and CBD are not known to have such an effect. THC, CBN, CBDL and some other cannabinoids on the other hand are known to be psychologically active to varying degrees.
CBD is probably the most abundant cannabinoid, contributing up to 40% of cannabis resin. Interestingly, CBD may actually have anti-anxiety effects and lessen the psychoactive effects of THC. This means that a plant with a greater percentage of CBD may reduce the intensity of the effects of the THC, which in effect lowers the potency of the plant. Use of a cannabis plant with less CBD has been shown to have an increased psychological impact and result in unwanted effects such as anxiety.
When THC is exposed to air it oxidizes and forms CBN. CBN is only very weakly psychoactive and not unlike CBD interacts with THC to reduce its effects. This is why cannabis that has been left out unused will have increasing amounts of CBN and decreasing amounts of THC and thus lose potency.
The infographic below details different types of cannabinoids and how they affect our bodies and brains.